The Station covers the largest serving area of farming land among the seven district agricultural research and extension stations (DARES) in Taiwan. Its service areas include Tainan City, Yuinlin County, Chiayi County and City, totaling 0.25 million hectares or 30.9％ of the total arable land in Taiwan. This district has about 220,000 farming households, 774,000 people active in farming, and 213,000 professional farmers, representing 28.9％, 26.4％ and 35.7％, respectively, of the country’s total.
The major crops in this district include paddy rice, corn, peanut, vegetable soybean, black soybean, mungbean, sweet potato, sesame, citrus, mango, longan, cucurbits and melons, vegetables, cut and pot flowers, and specialized crops.
The soil in this district is generally alluvial sandstone shale with good drainage. To the west of the north-south railway, the soil is calcareous and low in fertility; soil in the east is loam to clay with good fertility.
Annual mean temperature is 23.4℃. The recorded maximum and minimum temperatures are 37.8℃ and 2.4℃, respectively. Annual mean relative humidity is 81%. Average annual total precipitation is 1778 mm from an annual mean of 97 raining days. The rainy season is from May to mid-September, and the dry season from November to March of the next year.
About 139,000 ha, or 37% of the total arable land in this district is under an irrigation system managed by Yuinlin and Chianan Irrigation Associations. Among the irrigated land, 71,000 ha is being used for crops in rotation. Double rice fields account for less than 14.4%. The dryland crop field reaches 135,000 ha, the largest area in the country. Although Tsengwen Reservoir has boosted agricultural production in the district, its water supply is still insufficient.
The Council of Agriculture started to promote a policy of “reactivation of fallow farmland” in 2013, encouraged farmers to grow crops of import substitution, export potentiality or local specialty. In coped with the policy and climate change issue, the station continues to precede breeding program and extension services.